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December 2, 2014

Jonathan Tobin: Defending the Right to a Jewish State

Heather Hale: Compliment your kids without giving them big heads

Megan Shauri: 10 ways you are ruining your own happiness

Carolyn Bigda: 8 Best Dividend Stocks for 2015

Kiplinger's Personal Finance editors: 7 Things You Didn't Know About Paying Off Student Loans

Samantha Olson: The Crucial Mistake 55% Of Parents Are Making At Their Baby's Bedtime

Densie Well, Ph.D., R.D. Open your eyes to yellow vegetables

The Kosher Gourmet by Megan Gordon With its colorful cache of purples and oranges and reds, COLLARD GREEN SLAW is a marvelous mood booster --- not to mention just downright delish
April 18, 2014

Rabbi Yonason Goldson: Clarifying one of the greatest philosophical conundrums in theology

Caroline B. Glick: The disappearance of US will

Megan Wallgren: 10 things I've learned from my teenagers

Lizette Borreli: Green Tea Boosts Brain Power, May Help Treat Dementia

John Ericson: Trying hard to be 'positive' but never succeeding? Blame Your Brain

The Kosher Gourmet by Julie Rothman Almondy, flourless torta del re (Italian king's cake), has royal roots, is simple to make, . . . but devour it because it's simply delicious

April 14, 2014

Rabbi Dr Naftali Brawer: Passover frees us from the tyranny of time

Greg Crosby: Passing Over Religion

Eric Schulzke: First degree: How America really recovered from a murder epidemic

Georgia Lee: When love is not enough: Teaching your kids about the realities of adult relationships

Cameron Huddleston: Freebies for Your Lawn and Garden

Gordon Pape: How you can tell if your financial adviser is setting you up for potential ruin

Dana Dovey: Up to 500,000 people die each year from hepatitis C-related liver disease. New Treatment Has Over 90% Success Rate

Justin Caba: Eating Watermelon Can Help Control High Blood Pressure

The Kosher Gourmet by Joshua E. London and Lou Marmon Don't dare pass over these Pesach picks for Manischewitz!

April 11, 2014

Rabbi Hillel Goldberg: Silence is much more than golden

Caroline B. Glick: Forgetting freedom at Passover

Susan Swann: How to value a child for who he is, not just what he does

Cameron Huddleston: 7 Financial Tasks You Should Tackle Right Now

Sandra Block and Lisa Gerstner: How to Profit From Your Passion

Susan Scutti: A Simple Blood Test Might Soon Diagnose Cancer

Chris Weller: Have A Slow Metabolism? Let Science Speed It Up For You

The Kosher Gourmet by Diane Rossen Worthington Whitefish Terrine: A French take on gefilte fish

April 9, 2014

Jonathan Tobin: Why Did Kerry Lie About Israeli Blame?

Samuel G. Freedman: A resolution 70 years later for a father's unsettling legacy of ashes from Dachau

Jessica Ivins: A resolution 70 years later for a father's unsettling legacy of ashes from Dachau

Kim Giles: Asking for help is not weakness

Kathy Kristof and Barbara Hoch Marcus: 7 Great Growth Israeli Stocks

Matthew Mientka: How Beans, Peas, And Chickpeas Cleanse Bad Cholesterol and Lowers Risk of Heart Disease

Sabrina Bachai: 5 At-Home Treatments For Headaches

The Kosher Gourmet by Daniel Neman Have yourself a matzo ball: The secrets bubby never told you and recipes she could have never imagined

April 8, 2014

Lori Nawyn: At Your Wit's End and Back: Finding Peace

Susan B. Garland and Rachel L. Sheedy: Strategies Married Couples Can Use to Boost Benefits

David Muhlbaum: Smart Tax Deductions Non-Itemizers Can Claim

Jill Weisenberger, M.S., R.D.N., C.D.E : Before You Lose Your Mental Edge

Dana Dovey: Coffee Drinkers Rejoice! Your Cup Of Joe Can Prevent Death From Liver Disease

Chris Weller: Electric 'Thinking Cap' Puts Your Brain Power Into High Gear

The Kosher Gourmet by Marlene Parrish A gift of hazelnuts keeps giving --- for a variety of nutty recipes: Entree, side, soup, dessert

April 4, 2014

Rabbi David Gutterman: The Word for Nothing Means Everything

Charles Krauthammer: Kerry's folly, Chapter 3

Amy Peterson: A life of love: How to build lasting relationships with your children

John Ericson: Older Women: Save Your Heart, Prevent Stroke Don't Drink Diet

John Ericson: Why 50 million Americans will still have spring allergies after taking meds

Cameron Huddleston: Best and Worst Buys of April 2014

Stacy Rapacon: Great Mutual Funds for Young Investors

Sarah Boesveld: Teacher keeps promise to mail thousands of former students letters written by their past selves

The Kosher Gourmet by Sharon Thompson Anyone can make a salad, you say. But can they make a great salad? (SECRETS, TESTED TECHNIQUES + 4 RECIPES, INCLUDING DRESSINGS)

April 2, 2014

Paul Greenberg: Death and joy in the spring

Dan Barry: Should South Carolina Jews be forced to maintain this chimney built by Germans serving the Nazis?

Mayra Bitsko: Save me! An alien took over my child's personality

Frank Clayton: Get happy: 20 scientifically proven happiness activities

Susan Scutti: It's Genetic! Obesity and the 'Carb Breakdown' Gene

Lecia Bushak: Why Hand Sanitizer May Actually Harm Your Health

Stacy Rapacon: Great Funds You Can Own for $500 or Less

Cameron Huddleston: 7 Ways to Save on Home Decor

The Kosher Gourmet by Steve Petusevsky Exploring ingredients as edible-stuffed containers (TWO RECIPES + TIPS & TECHINQUES)

Jewish World Review Sept. 26, 2005 / 22 Elul, 5765

Clerical criticism

By Rabbi Dr. Asher Meir


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Are religious leaders subject to criticism?


http://www.JewishWorldReview.com | Q: You recently wrote that while blogs should protect the privacy of private individuals, they don't need to block reasonable discussions of the qualifications of public figures. Does this include religious leaders? What are the boundaries?


A: My recent column on blogging ethics generated a lot of interesting reader comment and, not surprisingly, a fair amount of discussion on blogs. The most common concern by far is the one in this week's question: Is a rabbi or other religious leader a "public figure"? What are the appropriate ethical boundaries in criticizing these figures?


In order to answer this question, we have to return to our famous "ABC's" of negative speech. These basic principles, enunciated by Rav Yisrael Meir Hacohen of Radin in his famous work Chafetz Chaim, hold the key to explaining my previous statement as well as some significant differences in the case of rabbis and other spiritual leaders.


The Chafetz Chaim explains that negative speech is only permissible with five conditions:


1. Accuracy — we must be sure to present the facts in an objective fashion, not in a tendentious screed;

2. Benefit — the revelation must be necessary to obtain some benefit, and there must be no alternative way of obtaining the benefit without damaging comments.

3. Certainty — we need to check our facts and not repeat innuendo

4. Desire — the motivation for our revelation must be to obtain the benefit; if the objective is slander the revelation is improper even if a benefit will result.

5. Equity — the subject of the revelation, as well any other individuals, should not suffer any undeserved damage.


If we apply these criteria to the average private person, we see that we have no license to broadcast his or her foibles. What possible benefit could there be? And even if there is a benefit, any damage or embarrassment caused would be completely undeserved — what did this poor person do to warrant having his shortcomings broadcast over cyberspace?


But if we apply the exact same criteria to a politician, we find that reasonable criticism will generally meet them. Having a bad political leader can result in great damage to the community, and having timely knowledge of the abilities and character of candidates is of benefit because these people typically stand for election at fixed intervals and the information is of practical use to the community. No one has a right to a political office, so if someone gets voted out because of an item revealed in a blog, this is not "undeserved."


The most problematic criteria is intention; for this reason I believe that anyone with a private interest in the outcome of the election should reveal it when giving an opinion on a candidate.


What about a spiritual leader such as a rabbi? We don't need any new criteria, but we will find that our old criteria play out a little differently.


Accuracy & Certainty: the same evidence which would be pretty convincing regarding an average person might be unpersuasive regarding a person known for outstanding moral stature. The Torah commands us "Judge your fellow righteously" (Leviticus 19:15), meaning that we should strive to give others the benefit of the doubt. But if the person in question has a reputation for upstanding conduct, then giving him or her the benefit of the doubt is not merely a good deed, it is simply good judgment.


Benefit: Political leaders are chosen in openly contested elections at stated periods. If their foibles are exposed, the public has a good chance to make use of this information in deciding whether to elect or re-elect them. Furthermore, other methods of obtaining benefit are seldom practical; a person can't exactly phone up the governor and schmooze with him or her over the way to improve their failings.


Compare this to the average spiritual leader. Even if we are convinced that they have made mistakes, revelation doesn't always make the most sense. Many of these people are surprisingly accessible, and so often it is much more practical and ethical to merely confront them with any concerns. And it is worth asking if letting followers know about shortcomings will ultimately be of benefit.


Equity: Due to their great moral authority of these leaders, undermining their status can do immense damage to the community — perhaps more than the damage resulting from having authority in the hands of an imperfect individual. This damage needs to be considered before deciding that revelation is justified.


This doesn't mean that these criteria can never be fulfilled. Sometimes it will be appropriate or even necessary to conduct a public discussion of the character and qualifications of religious leaders. But the considerations will be much stricter not because of any arbitrary "privilege of clergy" but simply because of the consistent application of the underlying principles of right speech.


One more point needs to be emphasized. Respectful disagreement does not fall into the category of negative speech at all, and so there is no need to apply the Chafetz Chaim's criteria. If a rabbi gives a sermon and someone comments that he doesn't know what he is talking about or that he is insensitive to some vital interest, that is negative speech and careful application of the above criteria would make us extremely reluctant to express ourselves in this way.


But if I say that my opinion is different, that's not slanderous in any way. The fact that I see things differently doesn't detract from his status in any way. (If a rabbi makes a ruling within the scope of his authority, those subject to this authority are still allowed to disagree but not to disobey. We are all familiar with the parallel distinction regarding decisions of judges in the secular law.)


The basic rule for publicizing damaging statements is the same for all individuals: the facts should be checked and expressed in balanced way; the revelation should be the only way of obtaining some important benefit; and the revelation should not result in undeserved damage.


But when we apply these criteria to spiritual leaders, we will find that the result is a very strict policy: the facts don't stack up the same way with regard to a person of great repute; the benefits of revelation are often questionable and the damage often great. Rabbis and other spiritual leaders should not be immune from criticism or public discussion, but their reputations and vital community role imply that these criticisms need to be expressed with unusual judgment and care.


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JWR contributor Rabbi Dr. Asher Meir, formerly of the Council of Economic Advisers in the Reagan administration, is Research Director of the Business Ethics Center of Jerusalem, Jerusalem College of Technology. To comment or pose a question, please click here.


Previously:

Vindictive Vendor: How can I punish an abusive competitor?
Blogging Ethics: Is the blogger responsible for defamatory posts?







© 2005, The Jewish Ethicist is produced by the JCT Center for Business Ethics